Roles در زﺑﺎن اﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽ ﮐﻼ ﭼﻬﺎر ﻧﻮع ﻧﻘﺶ ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮ ﻧﺪارﯾﻢ (a ﻧﻘﺶ اﺳﻤﯽ(nominal) ﮐﻪ در اﯾﻦ ﺻﻮرت ﯾﺎ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﯽ(subjective) اﺳﺖ. ﻫﺮ unit ﮐﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﻓﻌﻞاﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮد.(ﯾﻌﻨﯽ ﺟﺎﯾﮕﺎﻫﯽ در ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﺳﺖ و ﻫﻤﻪي ﻧﻘﺶﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﯿﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﯿﺐ ﺟﺎﯾﮕﺎه ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ) ﻣﺜﺎل: A stone is hard/ Gold is expensive/To study English is good/That Ali died (relative clause […]

Objective Complement

Objective Complement (نقش وصفی) وﻗﺘﯽ ﻣﺘﻤﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻟﯽ اﺳﺖ ﻧﻘﺶ آن وﺻﻔﯽ ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ. متمم ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻟﯽ ﯾﻌﻨﯽ ﯾﮏ ﻟﺤﻈﻪ را ﺑﯿﺎن ﮐﺮدن. اﯾﻦ اﻣﺮ در ﻗﺎﻟﺐ ﭼﻬﺎرم اﺗﻔﺎق ﻣﯽاﻓﺘﺪ I saw Ali studying English (reduced relative clause)I saw Ali killed in the war من علی را در جنگ کشته دیدم ﻓﻌﻞﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ در ﻗﺎﻟﺐ ﭼﻬﺎرم اﺳﺘﻔﺎده […]

Absolute construction

Absolute construction Noun or Referent + participial phrase = absolute construction اﯾﻦ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر در ﻋﻠﻢ ﺑﺴﯿﺎر ﻣﺘﺪاول اﺳﺖ وﻟﯽ در ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﻫﺎي ﻏﯿﺮ رﺳﻤﯽ و ﻣﺤﺎورات ﺟﺎﯾﯽ ﻧﺪارﻧﺪ.phrase Participialﻫﺎ ﺑﺪون ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ و ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻧﯿﺴﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﭼﻪ ﮐﺴﯽ ﺑﺮﻣﯽﮔﺮدد. ﻟﺬا ﺧﺎرج از ﺟﻤﻠﻪ و ﺑﻪ ﺗﻨﻬﺎﯾﯽ agentless ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ.و agent را از ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﯽﮔﯿﺮﻧﺪ. حال […]

Reported speech

Reported speech He said to me “I am in Tehran tomorrow.”He said to me that he was in Tehran the day after. Say, answer, whisper, explain, shout, scream, thought, present, (any verb that deals with the production of words) He presented the fact that he was going to be in Tehran the day after.Tell is […]


wish/ will

Wish/ will .ﺑﺎﺷﺪ noun or infinitive phrase or dependent clause می تواند یکwish ﻣﻔﻌﻮل I wish a book. I wish to see my doctor. I wish (that) I were in Tehran now. ﻧﮑﺘﻪ: اﮔﺮ از D.CL. اﺳﻤﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮان ﻣﻔﻌﻮل اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮد ﺟﻤﻠﻪ unreal ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺑﻮد. ﯾﻌﻨﯽ Time ≠ Tense اﮔﺮ آرزو در ﻣﻮرد آﯾﻨﺪه […]


Subjunctive After certain verbs:He proposed that I be [Tense (tense less) to ﺑﺪون ﻣﺼﺪر] in Tehran the day before yesterday. [Time (past)]   He asked that I lent? him 1 million dollars. He insisted that I go on travel/go traveling with him.He desired that we move into Mashhad.He preferred that I be in Mashhad rather […]

Specification and Identification

Specification and Identification Definition: the use of linguistic items to specify characteristics, attributes, identity, location, time, manner, etc., basically the specifying phrase adds more information to feel in the picture. Modifiers are a sub-category of specifiers. Point: Determiners/ articles/numbers are specifiers. the book to be read is …The man studying English(specification)(adjectival function, an adj adds […]


Modification Modification : ﻋﺒﺎرت اﺳﺖ از اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از unit ﺑﺮاي اراﺋﻪ ي اﻃﻼﻋﺎت در ﻣﻮرد ﯾﮏ اﺳﻢ. در واﻗﻊ اﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﯽ  را اضافه میکنیم. ﺳﻪ ﻧﻮع unit دارﯾﻢ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮاي modify کردن اسم به کار می روند. The use of linguistic items to modify the perception of the referent in the mind of the listener/ reader, […]

Causative result sentences

Causative result sentences (نقش وصفی) نکته: ﺟﻤﻼت ﺳﺒﺒﯽ ﻣﺠﻬﻮﻟﻨﺪ ﭼﻮن ﮐﻨﻨﺪهي ﮐﺎر ﻣﻌﻠﻮم ﻧﯿﺴﺖ. ﻣﺜﺎل: I had my car fixed. (causative result, when the subject cannot get to the results so they have to have someone else to do.) (simple fact)  I made/had him open (infinitive) (it is not causative result; it is a causative […]


Adjuncts Clause adjunct phrase: True Examples: • Slowly she walked. Slowly she walked down the street• She walked slowly. She walked slowly down the street• She slowly walked. She slowly walked down the street• She walked down the street slowly Wrong Examples: • She walked down slowly the street• She walked down the slowly street […]

Subject-verb inversion

Subject-verb inversion In the class is Ali, prepositional phrase in a nominal slot. Is it subject-verb inversion? In nominal phrase, the subject can be after the verb.In the garden stood three old apple trees. When we have a prepositional phrase in a nominal place is common when subject verb inversion happens. That is why we […]


Phrases Units/ slots:Words, phrases, clauses, sentences, paragraphs and essays. ﻣﻬﻢ ﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﻧﻮع unitﻫﺎ، ﻋﺒﺎرتﻫﺎ (phrases) ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ. ﻫﺮ ﮐﺪام از آنﻫﺎ را ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮرت ﺟﺪاﮔﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﻮرد ﺑﺤﺚ ﻗﺮار ﺧﻮاﻫﯿﻢ داد. وﯾﮋﮔﯽ ﻫﺎي ﮐﻠﯽ phrases و اﻧﻮاع آنﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﯾﮏ ﻣﺜﺎل در زﯾﺮ ﻣﯽآﯾﺪ: ۱) واﺣﺪ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﯾﯽ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﯽ ﻧﺪارﻧﺪ. ۲) Tense ﻧﺪارﻧﺪ. ﯾﻌﻨﯽ زﻣﺎن ﻧﺪارد. 3) ﻓﺎﻋﻞ […]