Modification : ﻋﺒﺎرت اﺳﺖ از اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از unit ﺑﺮاي اراﺋﻪ ي اﻃﻼﻋﺎت در ﻣﻮرد ﯾﮏ اﺳﻢ. در واﻗﻊ اﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﯽ  را اضافه میکنیم. ﺳﻪ ﻧﻮع unit دارﯾﻢ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮاي modify کردن اسم به کار می روند.

The use of linguistic items to modify the perception of the referent in the mind of the listener/ reader, chosen for this purpose by the speaker/ writer.


  1. Clause modifiers [clause adjuncts, clause adverbs]
  2. She walked slowly along the footpath. [ slowly: refers to the subject and how the subject does the action.]
  3. [Restrictive adjuncts]
    Only Pete could operate the machine. If you change the position of only, meaning will change. Pete could only operate the machine (this is the only thing that Pete can do). Pete could operate only the machine. He could operate the machine only. Restrict the operate to a more restrictive scope.


  1. Phrase modifiers [phrase adjuncts, phrase adverbs] always go before the word/ phrase it refers to unlike clause modifiers.


She is really pretty. (really: phrase modifier)

This dress is really in fashion. (really: phrase modifier)


Very big

Very is a modifier

She is very pretty (very modifies our perception of the word “pretty”)

She speaks quickly (a clause modifier)

She is really pretty.

She is really happy.

She can really run.


Belongs in 2 parts
1. word-order syntax
2. prepositional phrases


There is a book on the table. (constituent locative phrases)

There is a big book on the table.
You can see Ali in the class. Location phrases, reduced relative clause, out of context, it is ambiguous.

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