Units/ slots:
Words, phrases, clauses, sentences, paragraphs and essays.

ﻣﻬﻢ ﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﻧﻮع unitﻫﺎ، ﻋﺒﺎرتﻫﺎ (phrases) ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ. ﻫﺮ ﮐﺪام از آنﻫﺎ را ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮرت ﺟﺪاﮔﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﻮرد ﺑﺤﺚ ﻗﺮار ﺧﻮاﻫﯿﻢ داد. وﯾﮋﮔﯽ ﻫﺎي ﮐﻠﯽ phrases و اﻧﻮاع آنﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﯾﮏ ﻣﺜﺎل در زﯾﺮ ﻣﯽآﯾﺪ:

۱) واﺣﺪ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﯾﯽ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﯽ ﻧﺪارﻧﺪ.

۲) Tense ﻧﺪارﻧﺪ. ﯾﻌﻨﯽ زﻣﺎن ﻧﺪارد.

3) ﻓﺎﻋﻞ و ﻓﻌﻞ را ﺑﺎ ﻫﻢ ﻧﺪارﻧﺪ.

Phraseﻫﺎ از ﯾﮏ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮ و از ﯾﮏ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﮐﻮﭼﮑﺘﺮﻧﺪ. ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ:

I want to study English at home in the morning.

phraseﻫﺎ داراي ﻣﻌﻨﺎي ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﻧﯿﺴﺘﻨﺪ .وﻟﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻃﺮﯾﻘﯽ داراي ﻣﻌﻨﺎ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ.

در ﺑﺤﺚ از ﻫﺮ phrase ﺑﺎﯾﺪ دو ﺳﻮال ﮐﻠﯿﺪي را ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دﻫﯿﻢ:

a) Haw to make?
b) What roles?


A phrase can be one individual word. If we are talking about nominal and verbal phrases, a phrase is a sentence unit and what can go in the sentence unit. In everyday English, phrase is used for any group of words of more than one. But in the grammar, a phrase is a specific type of group of words, any individual word or group of words which actually go into one individual slot in the sentence. A phrase is an individual slot in a sentence, nominal phrase, verbal phrase, adjectival phrase, adverbial phrase, prepositional phrase, which have meaning. Phrases are not based on a verb, whereas a clause is based on a verb, ideally or normally has a verb even if the verb is not part of the written, clause has a verb. A small clause we have, a clause at the underlying level you know there is a verb but at the surface level there is not a verb.

• Working with Ali, I (it is a clause, verb is work)
• She wants the doors locked, she wants the doors are to be looked, the doors are locked, are going to be locked. When you look at the underlying level, there is a sentence.
• English in taught in Europe is ….

1) Prepositional phrase: [https://www.english-grammar.at/online_exercises/prepositions/preposition-index.htm]

• ﻋﺒﺎرﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺣﺮف اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﺷﺮوع ﺷﻮد:

in the morning, at 8, from Ali, by taxi, for free (adjective), until recently (adverb), before she opened the door (you can also have a clause)

Point 1:
the only thing you cannot have after the preposition is a verb.

What is a head word?
The head word, the cat walked across the street, the cat is over there,
The key word of a phrase is the head word.

The head word in an adjectival phrase is the adjective
Very quick, quite quick, seemingly quick (the adverb refers to the adjective)

There are two types of adverbials, refers to the adjective, and those who refer to the subject-verb combination of a sentence.

The cat walked across the street (prepositional phrase), if we are standing and we watch the cat walking across; and then another person who was not paying attention, the cat over there.
How does the cat get over there? we can say the cat walked across the street.

Point 2:
The street is the object of the preposition, and the cat is the subject of the preposition. Prepositions act like verbs in this syntactic context. With verb, the cat walked. The verb does not need an object.
In cognitive grammar a preposition is syntactically like a verb, the main difference is tense. A preposition can be transitive, across the street. If there is no object then it is intransitive. The preposition is the head word. She looked up. Up without any object. Across the street, across is the head word, then after that you have the object, inside the object you can have a pronoun, a noun, a nominal phrase like busy street, she walks across the river in flood (small clause), she walked across all the people who were lying on the street. After across you can have nominal phrases, nominal phrases have all the characteristics of nominal phrases because they are objective, so objective nominal phrases have all the characteristics of a nominal phrase.

2) Verbal phrase (finite vs. non-finite)

What can come in a verbal phrase, a simple phrase, a simple verb + aspect, (infinitive, ing form, complete one, resultative)

3) Infinitive vs. verbal nouns

Infinitive phrases: [https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/grammar/english-grammar-reference/to-infinitives]
to study English, to go out, to learn Spanish

ﻋﺒﺎرﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺼﺪر ﺑﺎ to ﺷﺮوع ﺷﻮد:

Verbal Nouns: [https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/grammar/a1-a2-grammar/verbs-followed-by-ing-or-by-to-infinitive-1], [https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/grammar/b1-b2-grammar/verbs-followed-by-ing-or-by-to-infinitive-2]

Studying English, walking in the park, going out

شروع می شود: ing +verb عبارتی که با


4) Gerund phrase is basically any phrase where the head word is an ing. Participial phrase, a gerund phrase is a participial phrase

• I saw Ali killed in the street, present and past participial. I saw Ali kill (infinitive, simple completive perfective in aspect) in the street.

Participial phrases: present and past participial

عباراتی که با شکل سوم فعل درست می شوند:

Killed in the room yesterday, written by Ali, studying English, etc.
They are the three non-finite forms of the verb. Infinitive, gerund, participial {non-finite phrases}

• They saw the bomb drop (infinitive, it is simple and completive/perfective in aspect)
• They saw the bomb dropping (incomplete, imperfective in aspect, at the reference moment, the action is not yet completed. He looked away because they didn’t want to see what happens. The people are not dead yet.
• They saw the bomb dropped (resultative in aspect, they saw the result of an action) they saw the result of an action. The people are dead.
To + infinitive (is part of a participial)

5) (Abstract) Noun phrases: [https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/grammar/english-grammar-reference/noun-phrases] noun phrase is a nominal phrase when the head word is a noun.

the big red book (head word) on (is the head word of the prepositional phrase) the table (is the head word of [the table]) (reduced relative clause, which is on the table, prepositional phrase is used as a reduced relative clause and describe the noun ) is a cook book, her great admiration.

6) Adjective phrases: [https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/grammar/english-grammar-reference/adjectives]
Good {one-word adjectival phrase} at English, difficult (one-word adjective phrase) to learn

عباراتی که با صفت شروع می شوند.

• She is lucky in life (modifying/ complementary phrase/specifying phrase),
• she is an expert on grammar.

Point 3:
This is the link between a noun phrase and an adjective phrase is that where the prepositional phrase is concerned, you have exactly the same construction regardless OF the word before is a noun or an adjective.

7) Adverb phrases: [https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/grammar/english-grammar-reference/adverbials]

• Slowly (one-word adverb phrase) towards
عباراتی که با قید شروع میشوند.
• She walks slowly towards the river.
• Very quickly, quite quickly, really quickly

8) Verb phrases: [https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/grammar/english-grammar-reference/verb-phrases]

• Studies (one-word verb phrase) English,
• Is (one-word verb phrase) a teacher.

عباراتی که با فعل شروع می شوند.
ﺗﻨﻬﺎ اﯾﻦ ﻧﻮع از phrases داراي tense اﺳﺖ.

• Is studying, has been studying, is going to be studying, can go,

9) Appositive phrases: when you have two words, normally they are the same type of words, they go together, the relationship is that the second one gives information about the first one, it is a type of reduced relative clauses and it has the same function as a non-defining relative clause.
Example: we, the Iranian people, are……… {who are the Iranian people}

Example: John, the police man, walked in.

ﻋﺒﺎرﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺪل اﺳﺖ.


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