Teaching Methodology

“Teaching methodology” refers to the principles, strategies, and techniques educators use to promote effective student learning.

Teaching is an art that requires the use of varied approaches to achieve learning outcomes, including guiding students in self-teaching techniques. The right methodology enhances comprehension, retention and application of knowledge in real-life situations.

  • Lectures are one common teaching method typically used with very large student groups, particularly at university. They are used to impart material to be learnt to as many students as possible in one session. Educators speak while employing visuals like diagrams and charts to expand learners’ knowledge. Lectures are effective for providing information and introducing new concepts. In many universities they are supported by Tutorials, where Tutors in smaller groups provide more Task-Based and Practical expansion and /or clarify poorly understood points for the students.
  • Self-Teaching: Self teaching is where the students teach themselves, generally by making the effort to find sources of the information and skills themselves and managing their own learning pace.
  • “Chalk and Talk”: this was, and in many coutnries still is, the traditional means of teaching in primary and secondary schools. The material to be learnt is taught to the students, who are then generally expectated to memorise it through rote learning. Examinations generally test acqusition of knowledge, not proficiency. It is Teacher and Curriculum based. In Langauge classes, “chalk and talk” is often termed the Grammar-Translation Approach.

  • Experiential learning brings theory to life by enabling learners to experience practical applications of theoretical concepts through simulations or games. It promotes the application of knowledge in real-life scenarios.

  • Presentation-Practice-Production (PPP); this is where the teacher presents the material to be explored and learnt, then creates contexts for the students to develop basic competence, and finally the students produce independent work to show that they have learnt the material. In langauge teaching-learning, PP is typical of the Direct Method [from the 1880s-1890s] and its descendants, the Functional Approach, the Lexical Approach and the Communicative Approach.

  • Task-Based Learning (TBL), also called Problem-Based Learning (PBL), on the other hand, allows teachers to present real-world challenges to students. TBL/PBL allows learners to apply their critical thinking and problem-solving skills and fosters collaboration, creativity and innovation among learners. The students find solutions and answers based on the input, and the teacher guides their exploration.


Technology has revolutionized teaching methodologies, and e-learning platforms offer blended learning options. Blended learning amalgamates classroom interaction with online tools to provide personalized learning experiences, allowing each learner to learn at their pace and convenience.

In conclusion, a good teaching methodology drives successful learning outcomes. Teachers ought to tailor their methodologies to meet changing student needs while considering individual preferences and abilities. A well-designed teaching approach instills a passion for lifelong learning.

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