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Roles

در زﺑﺎن اﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽ ﮐﻼ ﭼﻬﺎر ﻧﻮع ﻧﻘﺶ ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮ ﻧﺪارﯾﻢ

(a ﻧﻘﺶ اﺳﻤﯽ(nominal) ﮐﻪ در اﯾﻦ ﺻﻮرت ﯾﺎ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﯽ(subjective) اﺳﺖ. ﻫﺮ unit ﮐﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﻓﻌﻞ
اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮد.(ﯾﻌﻨﯽ ﺟﺎﯾﮕﺎﻫﯽ در ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﺳﺖ و ﻫﻤﻪي ﻧﻘﺶﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﯿﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﯿﺐ ﺟﺎﯾﮕﺎه ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ) ﻣﺜﺎل:

A stone is hard/ Gold is expensive/To study English is good/That Ali died (relative clause in a nominal phrase) is bad

اﺳﺖ و ﯾﺎ مفعولی (objective)است.
در اﯾﻦﺻﻮرت یا مفعول فعل (objective of a verb) و یا مفعول حرف اضافه(objective of preposition) است.

ﻣﺜﺎل:

I need a stone/I want gold/I like to study /I come here by this car

(b ﻧﻘﺶ وﺻﻔﯽ(adjectival) ﻫﺮ unit ﮐﻪ اﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﯽ درﺑﺎرهي اﺳﻢ ﻣﯽدﻫﺪ. ﻣﺜﺎل:

The book on the table (reduced relative clause, the book that is on the table) is mine.
the book that Ali studied is here

(c ﻧﻘﺶ ﻓﻌﻠﯽ(verbal) ﻫﺮ unit ﮐﻪ در ﺟﺎﯾﮕﺎه ﻓﻌﻞ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ واﻗﻊ ﺷﻮد. ﻣﺜﺎل:

Ali is here/ “is” is verb/ your sentence needs an “is”

(d ﻧﻘـــﺶ ﻗﯿــﺪي(adverbial) ﻫــﺮ unit ﮐـــﻪ اﻃﻼﻋــﺎﺗﯽ درﺑــﺎرهي ﻓﻌــﻞ(adverb of verb) ، صفت (adverb of adjective)و یا قید (adverb of adjective) می دهد.

Adverbs referred to a prepositional phrase, like she is really in fashion
Adverbs refer to subject-verb combination, she walked slowly.
Very quick (adverb of adjective)
Very recently (adverb of adverb)

   قید فعل (adverb of verb)
خود براساس معنا ۱۲ نوع دارد که عبارتند از 

i. Place مکان

I study English here/I study in the class/ I study where you recommend me to

ii. Time زمان

I study now/I study at 8/ I study after you go out

iii. Manner حالت

He walks slowly/He walks in a beautiful way/he walks as if he is a king

iv. Method قید روش-ابزار
He comes here fast by taxi


اﻃﻼﻋﺎت در ﻣﻮرد روش- اﺑﺰار وﻗﻮع ﻓﻌﻞ

v. Reason/cause قید علت

He doesn’t study for his father

vi. Consequence/effect


ﻗﯿﺪ ﻧﺘﯿﺠﻪ/ﻣﻌﻠﻮل
اﻃﻼﻋﺎت در ﻣﻮرد ﻧﺘﯿﺠﻪ /ﻣﻌﻠﻮل وﻗﻮع ﻓﻌﻞ

vii. Similarity
She walks as slowly as Ali does


اﻃﻼﻋﺎت در ﻣﻮرد ﺗﺸﺎﺑﻪ وﻗﻮع ﻓﻌﻞ

Viii. Contrast قید تضاد
Unlike Ali he loves English.

اﻃﻼﻋﺎت در ﻣﻮرد اﺧﺘﻼف و ﺗﻀﺎد در ﻓﻌﻞ

ix. Contradiction/paradox قید تناقض
Although he studies a lot, he failed the examination.

اﻃﻼﻋﺎت در ﻣﻮرد ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺾ وﻗﻮع ﻓﻌﻞ

x. Purpose قید نیت

xi. Frequency قید تکرار
He comes here every other day.


اﻃﻼﻋﺎت در ﻣﻮرد ﺗﮑﺮار وﻗﻮع ﻓﻌﻞ

xii. Condition قید شرط

اﻃﻼﻋﺎت در ﻣﻮرد ﺷﺮط وﻗﻮع ﻓﻌﻞ

• Sentence Patterns:

o Subject + intransitive verb + …  
Ali sleeps/ That student in this class sleeps
o Subject + linking verb (be, get, become, …) + subjective compliment {can be a noun or an adjective phrase} + … (sometimes adjectival in role and when it is a noun it is an identifying role)

John is the teacher (nominal phrase, and it does explanation, identification of the teacher), if it gives some identification of the person, it is identification.

She is Maryam. Identification.

John is happy (adjective) if it is descriptive, then it is (adjectival)

She seems (linking verb) a teacher (identification thing).

Subjective complement is more or less correct. But in everyday English it is an objective complement. This is me in this photo. We don’t say this is I. So, in everyday English, it is an objective complement. But in very formal English, it is a subjective complement.

ﺑـ ﻪ ﺟﺎﯾﮕـﺎﻫﯽ در ﺟﻤـﻼت ﮐــﻪ ﺑﻌـﺪ از ﻓﻌـﻞ رﺑﻄـ ﯽ ﻣـﯽآﯾـﺪ ﻣـ ﺘﻤﻢ ﻓـ ﺎﻋﻠﯽ(subjective complement)
ﻣـ ﯽﮔﻮﯾﻨـﺪ. ﻫـ ﺮ unit ﮐــﻪ در آن ﻗـ ﺮار ﮔﯿـ ﺮد اﻋــﻢ از clause or phrase (word), ﺑــﻪ ﻟﺤـ ﺎظ roles، نقش وصفی (adjectival) دارد. ﯾﻌﻨﯽ اﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﯽ درﺑﺎرهي ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﯽدﻫﺪ. ﻣﺜﺎل:

Ali is a student
Ali is in the class.

ﻋﺒﺎرت (in the class) ﻗﯿﺪ ﻣﮑﺎن ﻧﯿﺴﺖ. ﺑﻠﮑﻪ ﻣﺘﻤﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﯽ اﺳﺖ وﻧﻘﺶ وصفی دارد.

My job is to teach English. = unit: infinitive phrase/ role: adjectival. We can have anything that can be in a nominal phrase.
My job is cleaning up all the mess after the children have finished.
Her job is cooking the food (ing phrase)

o Subject + transitive (ditransitive) verb + object (+ object) + …

ﺑﻌﻀﯽ از اﻓﻌﺎل دو ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻟﯽ(ditransitive verb) هستند.

I teach Ali English/I want (intransitive)to see a film (subordinate clauses); I want him to see a film, so the subordinate which is “he is to see a film” the subject of the underlying sentence becomes the object of the surface sentence / She wants coffee/

“Ke in Farsi”

I know that English [know is an intransitive verb, that in this case is a relative pronoun, reported speech, it is a subordinate clause, omit from here.

o Subject + verb (20) + object + compliment nominal phrases +…


ﻣﺘﻤﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻟﯽ: ﺟﺎﯾﮕﺎﻫﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﻣﻔﻌﻮل اﺳﺖ و ﻫﺮ unit ﮐﻪ در آن ﺟﺎﯾﮕﺎه ﻗﺮار ﺑﮕﯿﺮد ﻧﻘﺶ adjectival دارد. ﺑﯿﺴﺖ ﻓﻌﻞ آن ﻫﻤﺎن اﻓﻌﺎل ﺣﺴﯽ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻋﺒﺎرﺗﻨﺪ از:

Watch, observe, witness (شاهد بودن), behold (دیدن، نظاره), catch, keep, notice (اﺧﻄﺎر-ﺧﺒﺮ-آﮔﻬﯽ), find, saw, send, feel, listen to, perceive, make …

Example:
I made Ali tired /I made Ali a good teacher. = unit: noun phrase/role: adjectival (causative)
I saw Ali killed in his room. = unit: participle phrase/role: adjectival
I find Ali waiting in Kashefi. = unit: participle phrase/role: adjectival
I saw Ali kill the policeman
I saw Ali fall down

دﻗﺖ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻣﺘﻤﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﯽ در اﻟﮕﻮي 2 و ﻧﯿﺰ ﻣﺘﻤﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻟﯽ در اﻟﮕﻮي 4، ﻧﻘﺶ وﺻﻔﯽ (Adjectival) دارﻧﺪ.

You don’t have an agent when there is not an object. You cannot have an agent when you don’t have an object

Agent means there is an object

Intransitive role
Stative role
Agentive role
With intransitive verbs, you cannot have an agentive role.

He eats an apple (agentive)

He seats (stative verb, the subject has a stative role)
In English, there is no difference between intransitive verbs and stative verbs.

patient
the apple was eaten, where the apple undergoes an action.
So, it is a subject of a passive sentence.

To do with types of clauses,
the chicken is cooking nicely. The chicken is being cooked, the patient subject of the middle voice sentence. Between intransitive and transitive, there is a middle one, where the syntax is intransitive but we know that the subject is actually the object of a transitive concept.

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