Verb Phrases

ﻗﻠﺐ ﺟﻤﻼت phrases verb ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ.

(1 ﻣﻌﻨﺎي ﻟﻐﻮي ﺑﺨﺸﯽ از ﻣﻌﻨﺎي اﺻﻠﯽ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ در ﻟﻐﺎت ﯾﺎ ﻣﻌﻨﺎي ﻓﻌﻞ ﻧﻬﻔﺘﻪ اﺳﺖ.

(2 ﺑﺨﺶ دﯾﮕﺮ در ﺷﮑﻞ دﺳﺘﻮري ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﯾﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻧﻬﻔﺘﻪ اﺳﺖ.

a. اوﻟﯿﻦ ﭼﯿﺰي ﮐﻪ ﻋﺒﺎرت ﻓﻌﻠﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻣﯽدﻫﺪ Tense ﺟﻤﻠﻪ اﺳﺖ. Tense ﯾﺎ آﯾﻨﺪه اﺳﺖ و ﯾﺎ ﺣﺎل و
ﯾﺎ ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ. اوﻟﯿﻦ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺳﻤﺖ ﭼﭗ ،Tense را ﻧﺸﺎن ﻣﯽدﻫﺪ.
b. دوﻣﯿﻦ ﭼﯿﺰي ﮐﻪ ﯾﮏ ﻋﺒﺎرت ﻓﻌﻠﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻣﯿﺪﻫﺪ ﯾﮏ ﻣﻌﻨﺎي دﺳﺘﻮري اﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺎم aspect ﮐﻪ ﭼﻬﺎر
ﻧﻮع دارد.

Simple/ perfect

Simple continuous

Simple perfect

Perfect continuous



– Simple; (perfective and imperfective)

– The progressive or continuous (incomplete activity state), when the end is important,

– Resultative

When we focus on the result of an action or state.
Aftermath, the result of an action after an action or state has finished, is what you see after that action or state, and you understand that is the cause or the result of that action or state.

Aftermath, the aftermath of the storm is all the rubbish etc. that you see.

The aftermath of the war, is all the bad things you see after the war is finished.

A complete example to be used for classroom teaching

I am tearing a paper (activity)

This is a tearing paper

This paper is torn

This is a torn paper

I have two pieces of torn paper

1. Past /non-past in tense, we don’t have any future in English and Farsi
2. Continuous and everything that is not continuous

Simple/ perfect

Perfect/ non-perfect

Passive/ not-passive

Simple continuous/ perfect continuous

Here are four contrasting pairs of examples where the grammatical difference is purely that one is non-progressive and the other is progressive:


  1. He nodded.
    a. He is very tactful.
    a. She lives with her parents.
    a. She reads the ‘New Scientist ‘.


  1. He was nodding.
    b. He is being very tactful.
    b. She is living with her parents.
    b. She is reading the ‘New Scientist ‘.

در ﺗﻮﺿﯿﺤﺎت  زﯾﺮ ﺑﺮاي  ﺗﻮﺿﯿﺢ   ﻣﻄﻠﺐ از ﻓﻌﻞ study اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﯽﮐﻨﯿﻢ.

اوﻟﯿﻦ ﻣﻔﻬﻮم aspect، “perfective, simple” اﺳﺖ. ﮐﺎري ﮐﻪ در ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ،ﺣﺎل ﯾﺎ آﯾﻨﺪه ﯾﮏ ﺑﺎر ﯾﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻓﺮﮐﺎﻧﺲ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد. ﯾﻌﻨﯽ ﺑﺮ روي ﻣﺤﻮر زﻣﺎﻧﯽ ﺑﺎﻻ ﻣﯽﺧﻮاﻫﯿﻢ ﺑﮕﻮﯾﯿﻢ ﮐﺎري در ﺳﺎﻋﺖ 4 دﯾﺮوز ﯾﺎ 8 ﻓﺮدا و ﯾﺎ
ﻫﻤﯿﻦ اﻻن اﺗﻔﺎق ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ اﻓﺘﺎد. برای نشان دادن “simple/perfective aspect” در present   tense  از شکل study/studies در past tense از شکل studied و در future aspect  از  will study استفاده می کنیم.

Future simple: it is part of modality (non-past, I go tomorrow)

I…they + will (80% probability) + study

I will call you at 8.
ﮐﺎري ﮐﻪ در آﯾﻨﺪه در زﻣﺎﻧﯽ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﯾﮏ ﺑﺎر اﻧﺠﺎم ﻣﯽﺷﻮد

I will call you at 8 every day. [It is repetition of a completive perfective action in a permanent sense].

Basic future is the present simple: I go tomorrow (definitely planned) (express different modality of how we look at future)

I am going tomorrow (temporary planned) (a modal expression of intention)

I’ll go to there tomorrow, (modality is willingness/ probability)

I might go there tomorrow (probability)

I could go there tomorrow (dynamic modality)


Future is part of modality and not the tense.

She will have already arrived in London yesterday. Use will to refer to the past. Will is not a tense word. I think it is probable.

So, she should have already seen her email.

She may have arrived in London yesterday. Refer to the past.

I go tomorrow (non-past, perfective simple)

کاری که در اینده با تکرار انجام میشود.

I live in London from tomorrow (imperfective)

ﻓﺮﮐﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮرت زﯾﺮ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻣﯽﺷﻮد:

Repetition words

)در اﺑﺘﺪا ﯾﺎ اﻧﺘﻬﺎي ﺟﻤﻠﻪ  (زﻣﺎن + /twice a زﻣﺎن+ a /once زﻣﺎن+  / every otherزﻣﺎن + Every

Every day/every other day/once a day/ twice a week

ﯾﺎ از ﺻﻮرت زﯾﺮ:

Always, almost always, usually, often, sometimes, occasionally, rarely, seldom, hardly ever, almost never, never,

She is always talking on the phone

She is almost always waiting outside whenever I walk out of the door.

These words can be used with both simple and continuous.

She is rarely waiting outside.  (always and continuous)

She will always be there if you ask him to be. (always, and will)

ﻫﻤﯿﺸﻪ ﻓﺮﮐﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻌﻞ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻣﯽﺷﻮد.)ﻣﮑﺎن ﺑﻌﺪ از ﻓﻌﻞ ﮐﻤﮑﯽ و ﻗﺒﻞ از ﻓﻌﻞ اﺻﻠﯽ(

English will be tested tomorrow/every day (will is expression of modality, the modality of formal speaking, mental state of the mind)

English is tested tomorrow. So, let’s study.

English is tested every day.

present: ﺣﺎل ساده

(1 ﮐﺎري ﮐﻪ در ﺣﺎل ﯾﮏ ﺑﺎر اﻧﺠﺎم ﻣﯽﺷﻮد.
(2 ﮐﺎري ﮐﻪ در ﺣﺎل ﺑﺎ ﻓﺮﮐﺎﻧﺲ اﻧﺠﺎم ﻣﯽﺷﻮد.

)درﯾﺎﻓﺖ ﮐﻨﻨﺪه( studied(be(am/is/are + ﺿﻤﺎﯾﺮ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﯽ /     (ﮐﻨﻨﺪه) study + ﺿﻤﺎﯾﺮ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﯽ

I call you at 8 tonight. (every Friday) using non-past to refer to the future

ﮐﺎري ﮐﻪ از زﻣﺎن ﺻﺤﺒﺖ ﮐﺮدن ﺑﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﯾﮏ ﺑﺎر اﻧﺠﺎم ﻣﯿﺸﻮد ﯾﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻓﺮﮐﺎﻧﺲ.

ﻧﮑﺘﻪ: ﮐﺎري ﮐﻪ در آﯾﻨﺪه ﻗﻄﻌﺎ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ را ﺑﺎ ﺣﺎل ﺳﺎده ﻣﯽﺗﻮان ﺑﯿﺎن ﮐﺮد.

Ali comes here next week. (ﻗﻄﻌﺎ)        Ali will come here next week (اﺣﺘﻤﺎل %80)

I call you every day./ I always call you.

Past simple:

(1 ﯾﮏ ﺑﺎر در ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ
(2 ﺑﺎ ﻓﺮﮐﺎﻧﺲ در ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ

I, you, ….+ studied
I, you, …+ was/were studied


Used to: it is vocabulary, we don’t do it anymore, it is not a grammatical thing,

Use, get people used to do sth, or train sb or someone to do sth, or accustomed people to do sth.

Train sb until they get accustomed.  It is optional.

ﮐﺎري ﮐﻪ در ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﻋﺎدت داﺷﺘﻪاﯾﺪ اﻧﺠﺎم دﻫﯿﺪ وﻟﯽ اﻻن اﻧﺠﺎم ﻧﻤﯽدﻫﯿﺪ.

ﻓﺎﻋﻠﯽ ﺿﻤﺎﯾﺮ + used to + to less infinitive phrases

Be Going to:

to going + ﻓﻌﻞ ﮐﻤﮑﯽ +ﺿﻤﺎﯾﺮ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﯽ

ﮐﺎري ﮐﻪ ﻗﺼﺪ دارﯾﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ رﯾﺰي ﻗﺒﻠﯽ در آﯾﻨﺪه اﻧﺠﺎم دﻫﯿﺪ.

Be going to
I look outside and I see lots of black clouds and so I know it’s going to rain (maybe it won’t rain). You can see the evidence now from what is going to happen in the future. With will, why do we use will typically with weather report.


On the weekends, there will be lots of rain to the north of the country heading south during the day …. we use will, because when we talk about weather, we cannot be definite.

Will (probability/willingness modality)

Be going to (definite modality, definite intention, present evidence)

وﻟﯽ وﻗﺘﯽ در ﻟﺤﻈﻪ ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ ﻣﯿﮕﯿﺮﯾﻢ از( will)

اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﯽﮐﻨﯿﻢ.

Shall (recommendations)

ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮرت ﭘﺮﺳﺸﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺷﮑﻞ we shall / I Shall برای  ﭘﯿﺸﻨﻬﺎد دادن (فقط در محاوره)

Shall I open the door?
Shall we dance?

To be used to+ …ing: to be accustomed to doing sth

…ing + to used + ﻓﻌﻞ ﮐﻤﮑﯽ + ﺿﻤﺎﯾﺮ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﯽ

I am used to walking.  به قدم زدن عادت دارم
I am used to sleeping for a short period.  به کم خوابی عادت دارم

I am used to not having breakfast.

He is used to long driving.

I’m used to/accustomed to sleeping for a short period.

I am accustomed to walking.

Used to meaning: in general

I am accustomed to walking two hours a day. It is a comfortable habit. It is an easy habit.

He is accustomed to driving long distances (for him, there is not a problem)

She is more used to do it than you are.

ﺑﻪ راﻧﻨﺪﮔﯽ ﻃﻮﻻﻧﯽ ﻋﺎدت دارم.

To get/got used (adjective, resultative) to + …ing:

 ﻋﺎدت ﭘﯿﺪا ﮐﺮدن:

ﺑﻪ ﺳﯿﮕﺎر ﮐﺸﯿﺪن ﻋﺎدت ﻣﯿﮑﻨﯽ
You get used to smoking

He got used to smoking.

ﺑﻪ ﺳﯿﮕﺎر ﮐﺸﯿﺪن ﻋﺎدت ﮐﺮد.

To be supposed (adjective) to: what we expect,

 +… to supposed + ﻓﻌﻞ رﺑﻄﯽ +ﺿﻤﺎﯾﺮ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﯽ

To be+ to +infinitive:                                                                            در شرف انجام است برای اینده                                                                                                             to be infinitive phrases  + ﻓﻌﻞ ﮐﻤﮑﯽ + ﺿﻤﺎﯾﺮ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﯽ

ﻗﺮاره ﻋﻠﯽ رو ﺑﺒﯿﻨﻢ.                              I am to see Ali

I have to see Ali

I am supposed to see Ali. They all have similarity is meaning. They are all obligatory.

You are to be in Mashhad.
I am to be a good teacher.
I was to see my doctor.

دوﻣـﯿﻦ ﻣﻔﻬـﻮم aspect درﺑـﺎرهي ﻋﻤﻠـﯽ ﮐـﻪ ﻫﻤـﯿﻦ اﻻن در ﺣـﺎل اﻧﺠـﺎم اﺳـﺖ و ﯾـﺎ در ﮔﺬﺷـﺘﻪ در زﻣ ـﺎﻧﯽ در ﺣ ـﺎل اﻧﺠ ـﺎم ﺑ ـﻮده و ﯾ ـﺎ در آﯾﻨ ـﺪه در زﻣ ـﺎﻧﯽ در ﺣ ـﺎل اﻧﺠ ـﺎم ﺧﻮاﻫ ـﺪ ﺑ ـﻮد و ﺑــﻪ آن progressive, incomplte ﻣــ ﯽﮔﻮﯾﻨــ ﺪ. ﺑــ ﺮاي ﻧﺸــ ﺎن دادن  progressive aspect، درpresent tense از شکل am/is/are studying  و در past tense  از شکل was/were studying  و در future aspect  از شکل will be studying  استفاده میکنیم.

اﯾﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﯾﮏ ﻟﺤﻈﻪي ﺧﺎص اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﺪه. به این نوع resultative aspect می گویند. ﺑﺮاي ﻧﺸﺎن دادن resultative aspect  در present tense از شکل (have/has studied)، در past tense از شکل had studied و در  future aspect  از شکل will have studied استفاده می کنیم.

She will have studied English 10 years by the end of this year. She might give up before the end of the year. She is going to have been studying English 10 years by the end of this year.

ﯾﮏ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺧﺎص ﻗﺒﻞ از اﯾﻦ ﻟﺤﻈﻪ ي زﻣﺎﻧﯽ (در ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ، ﺣﺎل و ﯾﺎ آﯾﻨﺪه) ﺷﺮوع و ﺑﺪون اﻧﻘﻄﺎع در ﺣﺎل انجام است که به ان resultative progressive  می گویند. در present tense  از (have been studying) در past tense ازhad been studying   و در future aspect ازشکل will have been studying  استفاده می کنیم.

ﺳﻮﻣﯿﻦ ﭼﯿﺰي ﮐﻪ  ﻓﻌﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺸﺎن ﻣﯿﺪﻫﺪ voice اﺳﺖ. ﺑﻪ اﯾﻦ ﻣﻌﻨﯽ ﮐﻪ them ﯾﺎ ﮐﻨﻨﺪه (active)

و ﯾﺎ درﯾﺎﻓﺖ ﮐﻨﻨﺪه (passive) اﺳﺖ.


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