Noun phrases

اﺳﻢﻫﺎ (noun) دو ﻗﺴﻤﻨﺪ. اﺷﺘﻘﺎﻗﯽ (derivational) و ﻏﯿﺮ اﺷﺘﻘﺎﻗﯽ (no derivational)

ﻣﺜﺎل: ﺗﺨﺮﯾﺐ ﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎ؛ راه ﺣﻞ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ؛ ﺧﻨﺪﯾﺪن ﺑﭽﻪ ﻫﺎ؛ ﺑﺰرگ ﮐﺮدن ﺑﭽﻪ ﻫﺎ

The destruction of towns (complementary prepositional phrase), the solution of the problem, laughing of the children, the bringing up of the children/ the upbringing of children




What roles N.PH:


آنﻫﺎ ﻧﻘﺶ nominal دارﻧﺪ. ﯾﻌﻨﯽ ﻧﻘﺶ اﺳﻤﯽ دارﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ ﯾﺎ subjective)ﻓﺎﻋﻠﯽ (ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ و ﯾﺎ (objective)ﻣﻔﻌﻮﻟﯽ..  وﻗﺘﯽ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﯾﺎ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﺣﺮف اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ و ﯾﺎ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻓﻌﻞ .زﻣﺎﻧﯽ ﮐﻪ N.PH ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮان ﻣﺘﻤﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ، ﻧﻘﺶ آن adjectival )وﺻﻔﯽ( ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺑﻮد:


Noun phrases

ﻧﻘﺶ adjectival ﺗﻨﻬﺎ زﻣﺎﻧﯽ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻣﺘﻤﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﯽ ﻗﺮار ﺑﮕﯿﺮد. POINT 1. Adjectival is a type of nominal, the same goes for adjectivals. Nouns, pronouns, and adjectives are all three nominals, and all three can be subjective, objective of verb, of preposition.  

  • She looks happy. [If the verb is a linking verb, then happy is not a direct object. A direct object is a word that undergoes the action of the verb.]
  She seems happy, or she seems an engineer. From the surface structure, there is no difference.
  • Ali surprised the authorities.
  • I noticed
  • My worry is
  How to make A.N.PH: Any Verb + a derivational suffix = A noun/adjective Suffix= tion, sion, ation (negotiation, only for verbs that end in ate); al; ing; ence, ance; ment; ure (pressure)   در اﻟﮕﻮﻫﺎي ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺳﺎزي در ﺟﺎﯾﮕﺎه ﻓﺎﻋﻞ(subject) و ﻣﻔﻌﻮل(object) اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﯽﺷﻮﻧﺪ.   ﻋﺎم (general) ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ.   ﻣﯽﺗﻮان آﻧﻬﺎ را ﺧﺎص ﮐﺮد. ﺑﻪ روﺷﻬﺎي زﯾﺮ:  
  • show object: The/determiner + N.PH + of object
  • The Destruction of cities (if it specifies clearly, you need THE) is one of the most terrible weapons of war ever device.
Why we use THE: in that case you are speaking about a specific type of destruction, which is the destruction of cities. If what comes after, specifies clearly that we are referring to a particular type of whatever. Then you have THE. If it specifies a specific reference.  
  • A destruction of cities (an unspecific reference) was taught better to avoid.
  • show agent: in this method:
    Use by+ agent after A.N.Ph    
  • The teaching of English by A teacher/ by self-access (the means, and not the agent)/ by computer (which is the method, the means to get to the end) (by referring to grammar, which is the activity)
  POINT 2: I learn English reading the news (you don’t actually need to specify the preposition). You put by when you want to make it really obvious.  
  • I learn English by reading the news
  On, for, by   When the context is very clear, it is optional,
  • I went to London Monday, (I omitted on)
  • I stayed in London two weeks (for two weeks)
  ﺗﻤﺮﯾﻦ: ﺑﻪ اﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ.   ü ﺧﺮاب ﺷﺪن ﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎي اﯾﺮاﻧﯽ ﺑﻪ دﺳﺖ ﺳﺮﺑﺎزان ﻋﺮاﻗﯽ   ü  ﭘﯿﺸﺮﻓﺖ ﺗﺌﻮري ﺑﻪ دﺳﺖ ﯾﮑﯽ از داﻧﺸﻤﻨﺪان اﯾﺮاﻧﯽ   ü ﺣﻞ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ي ﻏﺎﻣﺾ رﯾﺎﺿﯽ ﺑﻪ دﺳﺖ دوﺳﺘﻢ  
  • The destruction of Iranian cities by Iraqi soldiers
  • The development of a theory by one of the Iranian scientists
  • The solution of a complicated mathematical problem by my friend was felt to be amazing.
  POINT 3: You don’t have an agent when there is not an object. You cannot have an agent when you don’t have an object. agent means there is an object.   We have different roles (e.g., intransitive role, stative role, agentive role, patient)   POINT 3: With intransitive verbs you cannot have an agentive role.  
  • He eats an apple (agentive)
  • He seats (stative verb, the subject has a stative role)
  POINT 4: In English there is no difference between intransitive verbs and stative verbs.     Patient Role: The apple was eaten, where the apple undergoes an action. So, it is a subject of a passive sentence.   To do with types of clause,
  • the chicken is cooking nicely.
  • The chicken is being cooked; the patient is the subject of the middle voice sentence.
  What is a middle voice sentence? Between intransitive and transitive, there is a middle one, where the syntax is intransitive but we know that the subject is actually the object of a transitive concept.    
  • use intransitive verb (فعل لازم) + intransitive subject
  • the laughing of the children (referring to specific children and specific laughing)
  • the laughing of children (referring to specific laughing of children) was heard in the street
  • laughing of children (a more general reference)
  • use [’s] and possessive adjective (صفات ملکی) (my/your/his/her/its/ our/their) [it could be subject or object of the verbal noun) very formal English
Ali’s writing (a verbal noun) of a letter/ your watching TV /your destruction of natural resources Article+ possessive+ numbers+ adjectives + category specifier+ noun
  • The child’s two big French racing (noun, category specifier) cars
  • The child laughing (reduced relative clause, who is laughing) is my son.
  • The child’s (subject of the verbal noun) laughing seemed to be Hysterical.
  • His laughing (laughing is the subject of the verb) seemed hysterical.
  • The laughing of the child (which is of the child)
  • The laughing by the child (done by the child, reduced relative clause, which was done by the child) was driving everybody crazy.
  • The city’s (object of destruction, ‘s can become the object) destruction by the Iraqi soldiers was horrible. POINT 5: [in formal English, either the subject or the object of the verbal noun can be in the possessive. In everyday English, the subject is always in object form.] referring to city as its personality.
  • The destruction of the city by [shows the agent] the Iraqi soldiers [by the earthquake, by flooding, by drug use] was horrible.
  Referring to a set of buildings
  • the students of the school, the schools’ students [the school is the institute, the organization]
  • The country’s educational system
  • The country educational system
  • The educational system of the country
  • John’s leg
  • leg of John
  • John leg
  • the man’s leg [refereeing to a man who is alive],
  • the leg of the men [either you are referring to a dead man or you are referring in a very clinical way to an object which in a man],
  • the man [specifier] leg
  living furniture
  • the table’s leg,
  • the leg of the table,
  • the table leg
  ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﮐﺮدن ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﯾﺎ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل از of اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﯽﮐﻨﯿﻢ. وﻟﯽ ﺑﺮﺧﯽ ﺻﻔﺎت و ﻓﻌﻞﻫﺎ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮاي اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از آنﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎي of از for ، to، on ﯾﺎ in اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﯽﺷﻮد. ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺜﺎل:     NOUN+ for: [potential goal] demand(ﻧﯿﺎز), desire(آرزو) ,pity (دلسوزی), preference(ﺗﺮﺟﯿﺢ), request, respect, reverence (احترام با ترس از خدا), urge (درخواست)and wish.   POINT 5: The preposition for has a specific meaning, the meaning is {potential goal}.   examples:
  • The police have come for peter. What this mean is that at the front door or in reception are the police, where peter is, I don’t know, and they have discovered peter but they have not yet got peter.
  • I am looking for my keys. I don’t know where my keys are, and I hope that I will find my keys but not yet. This is what potential goal is, that I have a goal, my keys, I do not know if I will be successful. Same for the police, they have come for peter, but they do not yet know if they will actually catch peter.
  • I have a gift for you.
  • I am studying for my master’s.
  • He was arrested for selling drugs in the street.
  • They were arrested for demonstrating against the government.
  • She was given a prize for discovering a new medical procedure.
  therefore: For is (potential, maybe) goal. POINT 6: After for, you can have any nominal phrase, ing form, pronoun, noun, etc. For [potential goal] + [nominal phrase like ing verb]     To is moving and arriving.  
  • I applied to Monash university for a PhD position. [The application went to Monash and arrived, so TO shows the movement, a definite arrival, for PhD, maybe yes maybe no.
  • She applied to the company for a job. The application definitely goes to the company, but getting the job is potential. Maybe 5000 other people have applied.
  • I wrote the letter to [definite arrival] my sister for [indefinite arrival or temporary replacement] my mother.
  POINT 7: TO shows the definite arrival of the thing, whereas for is for the indefinite arrival.  
  • my mother had broken her hand, so I had to write the letter to my sister, or I wrote the letter to my sister, for my sister to give it to my mother, what I don’t know is, if my sister really will give it to my mother.
  • She wants to drink a cup of coffee. {a definite thing}
  • She hopes to get a good job, it’s much more definite
    For shows (indefinite arrival, or temporary replacement)  
  • The principal of the school was sick and so the vice principal met the special guests for him. Temporary replacement, if you can replace someone temporary, in theory you can actually do the job. My colleague, fellow teacher was sick and I did her class for her.
  So, this FOR, this vague thing of maybe I will get what I want, I’m doing this now, I could possibly do this permanently, but it is just now, it’s something vague about FOR.  
  • She hopes for world peace, it’s a maybe
  QUESTION? I have a gift for you. When does this become, I give the gift to you? When I accept, it becomes I give the gift to you. I have a letter for you, it looks very official, and then you can say no, it is an official letter, I don’t want it. You use to and for, depending on how definite it is.    
  • use adjective before noun
  • Ali’s fast walking
  • his understandable talking-recording
  • his comprehensible talking
  • The logical solution to the war problem would be to improve the economy
ﻧﮑﺘﻪ: ‘s ﻣﺨﺼﻮص ﻣﻮﺟﻮدات زﻧﺪه اﺳﺖ. ﺑﺮاي اﺷﯿﺎي ﺑﯽ ﺟﺎن از phrase of اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﯽﮐﻨﯿﻢ.   The military solution for/to Afghanistan’s problem The political solution for/to Middle East issues/problems You use to and for, depending on how definite it is.   POINT 8: Of shows that we are referring to a part of things You can’t say the house of my father, because the house is not part of your father. Visual image is very useful. The solution is not part of the problem, it is the answer to the problem. ﻧﮑﺘﻪ:ﺑﻌﺪ از اﺳﻢ ﻣﯽﺗﻮان از ﻋﺒﺎرت ﺣﺮف اﺿﺎﻓﻪ و از ﯾﮏ ﻋﺒﺎرت ﻣﺼﺪري (infinitive phrase) اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﮐﺮد، ﮐﻪ ﻧﻘﺶ وﺻﻔﯽ ﯾﺎﻓﺘﻪ و آن را ﺧﺎص ﻣﯿﮑﻨﺪ.   A book to read alone is war and peace.                Role: adjective Coming here to learn English (definite arrival) is good.   This is a book for studying alone, you Would expect to see in the publicity of the book, because what you don’t know is where the people who be interesting in buying this book or not. ﻧﮑﺘﻪ: ﺑﻌﺪ از n.ph. ﻣﯽﺗﻮان از ﯾﮏ clause that اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﮐﺮد.   His suggestion that we study is good. He suggested that we study (reported speech) {background sentence); we think or feel that is good. Which is wrong. His decision that his child should study (defining relative clause) is good. He decided that his child should study; I think this is good.
  1. The man that is at the door is my friend.
  2. The man who is at the door is my friend.
  3. The car that is in the street is my car.
  4. The car which is in the street is my car
  5. The city where I live is …
  Nominalization: When you underlying two main clauses, when there is nominalization, you turn one of these main clauses into a nominalized clause, it could be an ing phrase, or whatever.
  • The destruction of cities is nominalization.
  • Suggestion is nominalization. Nominalization is often used when we want to make the message more impersonal.
  • the destruction of the city by the soldiers is more impersonal than to say, the soldiers destroyed the city. It is very common in military propaganda.
  • An Iraqi police station was destroyed by a smart bomb with some collateral damage. A typical military press release where, Iraqi police station put this first, because in everybody’s mind, Iraqi police are not nice people.
  • The destruction of the Iraqi police station by a smart bomb caused some collateral damage. More positive press release. All of these bad things are hidden by nominalization and the passive. This is the value of nominalization.
The Suggestion= suggesting      
  • use any adverbial (unless manner(ly)) after PH.
  • Ahmadi’s teaching of English in his office in the afternoons every Fridays
  • Teaching in class is difficult.
    POINT 9: Some people make a difference between a true adverb [really hard, very hard, really nice, an adverb that modifies an adjective, an adverb or a prepositional phrase]   The other type of true adverbs is a clause adverb that modifies the subject-verb unit. Like slowly, quickly, happily   These as being true adverbs and everything else people conditionally traditionally got adverbs, [time phrase words like now, tomorrow, today, next. Last year, in the past, upstairs, downstairs, they are adjuncts)   Prepositional phrase, go home (home is a prepositional phrase), go back, go to the front  
  • The manner adverbial must change to adjective and use before A.N.PH.
  Example: Ali drives slowly in the street Ali’s driving slowly in the street (false) This phrase is false. Because (slowly) is a manner adverbial and must change to adjective and use before noun: Ali’s slow driving in the street. It is a correct phrase. اﯾﻦ روشﻫﺎ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺧﺎصﺗﺮ ﮐﺮدن اﯾﻦ phrase اﺳﺖ. ﭼﻨﺎن ﮐﻪ در ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻒ ﮔﺮاﻣﺮ ﮔﻔﺘﯿﻢ، ﮔﺮاﻣﺮ ﻗﻮاﻧﯿﻨﯽ را ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﯾﺎد ﻣﯽدﻫﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺘﻮاﻧﯿﻢ ﺟﻤﻼت واﻗﻌﯽ و ذﻫﻨﯽ را در ﺳﻄﻮح ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ از ﻋﺎم ﺑﻮدن ﺑﺴﺎزﯾﻢ. ﺑﺎ اﯾﻦ ﻣﺜﺎلﻫﺎ اﻫﻤﯿﺖ ﻋﺎم ﯾﺎ ﺧﺎص ﺑﻮدن و ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﺧﺎص ﮐﺮدن و ﭼﻘﺪر ﺧﺎص ﮐﺮدن روﺷﻦ ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ. ﻫﺮ وﻗﺖ ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﯿﻢ ﺧﺎص ﺻﺤﺒﺖ ﮐﻨﯿﻢ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ از ﮐﻠﻤﺎﺗﯽ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ اﯾﻦ ﮐﻠﻤﺎت اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﮐﻨﯿﻢ:    
  • It is clearly (clearly can refer to a clause or an adjective) wrong It is a clear mistake
  • She only (refer to the verb) came to see me. It was only john who did that
  • It was clearly in the box
Clearly can refer to any phrase, a prepositional phrase, a nominal phrase  
  • She is quite (refers to a big girl) a big girl
  POINT 10: True adverb modifies phrases and clauses. A phrase can be a single word, a one-word phrase is equal to any phrase.   Adjunct is anything that is in addition to the basic SUBJECT+VERB+OBJECT clause. Adverbial phrase are adjuncts.   The, this, that, those, these, [‘s], my…         ﺗﻤﺮﯾﻦ: ﺟﻤﻼت را ﺑﻪ اﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ:   ü  ﺧﻄﺎﺑﻪ ي رﯾﯿﺲ ﺟﻤﻬﻮر ﺑﻪ ﻣﻠﺖ ﻫﻤﻪ را ﻧﺎ اﻣﯿﺪ ﮐﺮد.   ü  اﯾﻤﺎن او ﺑﻪ ﺧﺪا اﺟﺎزه داده اﺳﺖ ﻣﺸﮑﻼﺗﺶ را ﺳﭙﺮي ﮐﻨﺪ.   ü  ﺻﺪﻣﺎت وارده ﺑﻪ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺮان در ﺗﺼﺎدف اﺗﻮﺑﻮس ﺑﺴﯿﺎر وﺣﺸﺘﻨﺎك ﺑﻮد.   ü  ﻣﯿﻞ ﻫﻤﺴﺮ او ﺑﺮاي ﺗﺠﻤﻼت ﺑﯿﺸﺘﺮ او را ﺑﯿﭽﺎره ﮐﺮده اﺳﺖ.   ü ﻧﯿﺎز ﺑﭽﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺮاﻗﺒﺖ داﺋﻢ ﺑﺴﯿﺎر ﻣﻬﻢ اﺳﺖ.   ü  ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﻋﻠﯽ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻮال ﻣﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺴﯿﺎر زﯾﺒﺎ ﺑﻮد.   ü  ﺣﻤﻠﻪ ي ﺳﺮﺑﺎزان ﻣﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮاﺿﻊ دﺷﻤﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﻧﯿﻤﻪ ﺷﺐ ﺻﻮرت ﮔﺮﻓﺖ.   ü  ﺻﺪﻣﺎت وارده ﺑﻪ ﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎي ﺳﯿﻞ زده ﺑﺴﯿﺎر ﺑﺎﻻ ﺑﻮد. ü  ﻧﯿﺎز ﻣﺮدم ﺷﻬﺮ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻤﮏ ﺳﺮﯾﻊ  
  • The president’s address to the nation discouraged everyb
  • His trust in God allowed him to overcome his
  • The injuries to the passengers in the bus accident were
  • His wife’s desire for more luxuries killed
  • The children’s need for constant attention is very
  • Ali’s answer to teacher’s question was very
  • Ore soldiers’ attack on the enemy position to take after
  • The damage to flood-stricken cities was very
  • The people’s demand for immediate help for in
  • The omission of the last 3 chapters from the exam by the teacher
  • The omission of Ali Karimi from Persepolis by the previous coach
  • The omission of verb by the teacher from this text
  • The appearance of man six hundred thousand years ago
  • The disappearance of dinosaurs before man
  • The appearance of many strange animals on the earth
  • Ali’s financial dependence on his family
  • The emotional dependence of children on their parents
  • The children’s emotional dependence on their parents
  • The illogical dependence of many students on their teachers
  • The separation of knowledgeable student from less knowledgeable students before the exam
  • The beautiful pronunciation of one of the students in the class
  ü ﺗﻠﻔﻆ زﯾﺒﺎي اﻣﺮﯾﮑﺎﯾﯽ شما Pronounce → pronunciation       ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺑﺎ اﯾﻦ ﺻﻔﺎت ﻣﯽ آﯾﺪ:   Correct, incorrect, wrong, American, British, Canadian, beautiful, rapid, comprehendible     ü  ﺷﻤﺎ ﻧﯿﺎز ﺑﻪ ﯾﮏ ﺗﻠﻔﻆ ﺻﺤﯿﺢ دارﯾﺪ.   ü  ﺗﻠﻔﻆ زﯾﺒﺎي اﯾﻦ ﻟﻐﺖ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻣﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﺮا ﺟﺬب ﮐﺮد    
  • Your beautiful American pronunciation.
  • You need a correct pronunciation.
  • The teacher’s beautiful pronunciation of this word attracted me.
  • Or: The beautiful pronunciation of this word by teacher attracted me.
ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺑﺮاي درس ﺧﻮاﻧﺪن ﺑﺴﯿﺎر ﺧﻮب ﺑﻮد. ﭘﺎﺳﺦ:   Decide →decision→ decision to, decision on Sth, decision about sth. ü  ﻣﺎ ﻧﯿﺎزﻣﻨﺪ ﯾﮏ ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ ﮔﯿﺮي ﺳﺮﯾﻊ ﻫﺴﺘﯿﻢ.   ü دﻧﯿﺎ ﭼﺸﻢ ﺑﻪ راه ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ ﮔﯿﺮي اﯾﺮان در ﺧﺼﻮص ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ي ﻫﺴﺘﻪ اي اﺳﺖ.  
  • Your decision for studying was very
  • We require a rapid
  • The world is waiting for Iran’s decision about its nuclear
ü ﺣﺬف اﯾﺮان از اﯾﻦ ﮐﻨﻔﺮاﻧﺲ ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺎ ﺳﻨﮕﯿﻦ ﺑﻮد.   omit → omission → omission word or members    
  • The omission of Iran from this conference was very heavy for
  Running water دﯾﺪﯾﻢ ﮐﻪ در ﻧﻮع اول اﺳﻢ از ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺸﺘﻖ ﺷﺪ. در ﻧﻮع دوم اﺳﻢ از ﺻﻔﺖ ﻣﺸﺘﻖ ﻣﯿﮕﺮدد ﮐﻪ در زﯾﺮ ﻣﯽﺧﻮاﻧﯿﻢ:   Adjective + (th/ity/ness/Ø) = derivative noun Example: able: ability/ readable (itself comes from verb, read): readability/ useful/useless (the noun use): uselessness, usefulness/ wide: width/ deep: depth/ high: height/   noun becoming noun moon (noun): month (noun)   suffix ly, adjective from nouns friend: friendly, a person who acts like a friend man: manly, a person who acts like a man woman: womanly, a person who acts like a woman   like child: childlike     adverbs from adjectives slow: slowly month: monthly day: daily week: weekly   روﺷﻬﺎي ﺧﺎص ﮐﺮدن:   ﻫﻤﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻣﻮرد ﻗﺒﻠﯽ اﺳﺖ. ﻣﺜﺎل:   Ali is very tired.          Abstract noun: Ali’s tiredness Ali’s car   English is simple for Iranians: the simpleness of English for Iranians: the simplicity of English for Iranians.   Felicity, simplicity   The illogical destruction of natural resources by the government after the Islamic revolution for 30   years   ﻧﮑﺘﻪ: phrase ﻫﺎﯾﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ از A.N.PH ﻣﯽآﯾﻨﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺮار زﯾﺮ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ:   Word + A.N.PH + (infinitive/preposition/ participle phrases& that clause, relative and reduced relative clauses include after nouns, gerund, infinitive, participial, and so on, prepositional phrases)   ﺗﻤﺮﯾﻦ:ﺟﻤﻼت زﯾﺮ را ﺑﺮ اﺳﺎس درﺳﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺧﻮاﻧﺪﯾﺪ ﺗﺤﻠﯿﻞ و ﺑﺮرﺳﯽ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ.  
  • I was surprised by Ali’s foolishness of/in not coming to class.
  • Ali’s foolishness in/of not coming to class surprised everybody.
  • I noticed Ali’s foolishness in /of not coming to class.
  • The slow destruction of the bridge by Ali in Sabzevar took place last year.
        QUESTION? Is destruction an abstract? you know they call it an abstract simply because the word destruction is an abstract. But when you see a destroyed town, then you know very old the destruction is a physical thing.   The building of a house The creation of a new car The creation of a new idea   It could be every possible noun followed by a prepositional phrase.   A young girl of fifteen years of age (two of phrases) Nouns that are modified by prepositional phrases, where prepositional phrase has adjectival type role.                    

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