ING phrases vs. infinitive phrases

What is participial? Progressive continuous action which is normally temporary. Basically, it shows the result/ the consequence of an action.

Let’s start with four distinctions.


  1. Gerund phrase gives information on activity general information [I like teaching] I like the activity of teaching. Infinitive Phrase gives specific information of goal-reference [I like to swim]
  • I want to drink a cup of coffee.
  • I hope to get a good job. (it’s not specific info)
  • I decided to go to London.


Do not start with LIKE, PREFER, WANT to teach this part.


  1. She saw the door shut (infinitive refers to the complete action) and the ING refers to the activity. Like she stopped talking to the receptionist.


Then you can say

  • She wants to drink a cup of coffee.



  1. Refer to the past [I remember calling you] [I remember watching this film before] [I’ll never forget meeting you for the first time in this café.]
    Refer to the after [I remember to call you] [Please remember to buy some milk on the way home.] yes or no, it’s only the intention maybe you don’t call.


  1. Become adverbial participial phrases of method [I learn words reading the latest news] [ I improve my speaking getting in touch with native English speakers]

Become adverbial infinitive phrases of purpose [ I read the news to learn words], [You are here to learn grammar]



More importantly, we are here to learn the meaning of ING and To.



The key to the ing-form is activity-state focus.


  • I like running.
  • The bus stopped picking up the children
  • I’ve stopped buyingthe newspaper because now I read the news online.
  • She stopped talking to the class when her phone rang.
  • Try opening the door to let the smoke out. = try doing the activity in order to reach the goal.
  • She risked losing her job. [“losing” is the activity she risks. *”risk to lose” would mean her goal is to lose. We don’t use “risk” to refer to goals, only to real risks.]


The key to the infinitive is that it is “simple” in aspect and the preposition “to” is destination/goal focus.


  • The bus stopped to pick up the children. 
  • He stoppedthe video to ask the students some questions [Stop + to + infinitive means that someone or something stops an activity so that they can do something else].
  • She stopped talking to the class to answer her phone when it rang
  • Try to open the door, the goal is to have an open door – a complete action, which is part of the aspect range covered by “simple aspect”.
  • I like to run to keep fit. – here I have a goal.
  • She failed to return the book: the goal/intention was “return the book” – and she failed to fulfil that objective.


  1. So, the infinitive has a “perfective” aspect (simple, etc.). Ing-forms refer to “imperfective” (incomplete) actions or states.


  • She likes swimming. Swimming is a verbal noun by the addition of nominalizing suffix ING. Gerund it is a useless word in English.


  • I like to swim (to is a preposition and swim is the object of preposition)
  • She wants to drink a cup of coffee.


Looks (looks can be either intransitive active verb or intransitive stative verb).

  • She looks at the books (intransitive active verb)
  • She looks tired (intransitive stative verb), then after these verbs you can have adjectives that refer back to the subject.


  • She made the girl happy. (The girl happy is described as a small clause that is the object of the verb MAKE). In cognitive grammar, it is more complex. She made the girl to be happy. In its underlying has TO.


What is a gerund?
Gerund is a nominal.

  • The walk made me tired. Walk is a noun here.

Nominal verb phrase, Verbal nominal phrase (infinitive, ing form and the others)

Infinitive is where an infinitive is preceded by To, strictly speaking it is a type of prepositional phrase.


I must go home (go home is also an infinitive phrase)

What sentence roles: nominal, adjectival, adverbial

These 6 cases without any change are infinitive phrases.
Use a “not” for negative before “to”

I want to study English tonight.

ﻣﺜﺎل: ﻣﯿﺨﻮاﻫﻢ اﻣﺸﺐ اﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﮐﻨﻢ.

ﺗﻤﺮﯾﻦ: ﺟﻤﻼت زﯾﺮ را ﺑﻪ اﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ:
  • ﻣﯿﺨﻮاﻫﻢ ﻫﺮ روز اﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﮐﻨﻢ
  • ﻣﯿﺨﻮاﻫﻢ اﻻن در ﺣﺎل اﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽ ﺧﻮاﻧﺪن ﺑﺎﺷﻢ
  • ﻣﯿﺨﻮاﻫﻢ اﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽ ﺧﻮاﻧﺪه ﺑﺎﺷﻢ)ﺗﻤﺎم ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﺷﺪ)
  • دﯾﺪن دﮐﺘﺮ اﻣﺸﺐ ﺧﻮب اﺳﺖ
  • دﯾﺪن دﮐﺘﺮ ﻫﺮ ﻣﺎه ﺧﻮب اﺳﺖ
  • ﭘﺎس ﮐﺮدن اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﺧﻮب اﺳﺖ
  • ﻣﯿﺨﻮاﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﯽ اﻻن ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﮐﺮده ﺑﺎﺷﺪ
  • ﻣﯿﺨﻮاﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﯽ درس ﺑﺨﻮاﻧﺪ
  • ﻣﯿﺨﻮاﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﯽ ﻫﻤﯿﻦ اﻻن درس ﺑﺨﻮاﻧﺪ

The active ones

  1. Can have object;

To study English

To buy a car

To get on the bus

To buy a ticket

To help friends

To write a letter

To speak English

To know the subject

To listen to music

  1. The active infinitive Can have agent: (for + name) + infinitive phrases

For Ali to study English

For you to take a taxi

For Ali to come here (active purposive infinitive)

For you to do research

For you to iron the clothes

  1. The passive ones Can have recipient: (for + name) + infinitive phrases

For Ali to be killed

For my car to be fixed

For Ali to have been killed

For Ali to be being punished

  1. Can have agent: —-infinitive phrase—— + by phrases(agent)

For my car to be fixed by a mechanic

For you to be taught by Ali

  1. Can have object: any noun that come after this phrase is object.

Like: To study English is good. A purposive nominal phrase
For me to study English is good.
For Ali to be thought is good.

  1. All of them can have any adverbs and adverbial like

For Ali to study English at 8 every day at his office.

  1. Use “wh” words in front of infinitives.
    For Ali, how to study English is important.

For Ali, where to go is important.

For me, what to teach is important.

You could omit FOR ALI


  • Adjectival:

اﮔﺮ phrase infinitive ﺑﻌﺪ از ﯾﮏ اﺳﻢ ﻗﺮار ﺑﮕﯿﺮد ﻧﻘﺶ وﺻﻔﯽ ﭘﯿﺪا ﻣﯿﮑﻨﺪ. ﻣﺜﺎل

The book to be bought is financial. (Adjectival)

The shoes to be polished are mine.
The teacher to come here
The words to be learned this session

The books which are to be selected
The book to be selected will be taught every session.

I don’t study the book to be selected. I don’t study this book but I chose this book for other people to read.

The books to be on the desk
The students to have gone to Mashhad
The park to be built here

Too +adjective+ infinitive phrase

It is too hot to study in
This house is too expensive for me to buy

Too + many/ few + جمع noun +infinitive phrase

I have too many problems to help you.

I have too few relatives to be glad in Mashhad.

Much+ Too + little/many + جمع noun + infinitive phrase

I have much /way too little money to help you.

Tehran is much too noisy to live in.

Too + adverb + infinitive phrase

Mr. E speaks too fast for me to understand.

He drives too fast/carelessly for us to arrive safe at Tehran.

  1. He has enough time to help you
  2. He has done enough exercise to do this task successfully
  1. He is old enough to get married.
  2. He talks slowly enough for me to understand.

از phrases infinitive ﻣﯿﺘﻮان ﺑﺮاي ﻧﺸﺎن دادن ﻗﯿﺪ ﻧﯿﺖ purpose اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﮐﺮد. ﻫﻤﭽﻨﯿﻦ می توان از in order in اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﮐﺮد.

Ali studies English to find a good job


I don’t want to study.

I want not to study but to play.

ﮐﺎري ﮐﻪ ﻗﺮار اﺳﺖ در آﯾﻨﺪه اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد ﺑﺎﯾﺪ ﺳﺎده ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎر ﺑﺮده ﺷﻮد

To be + infinitive


I am to see Ali قرار است علی را ببینم This music is to be played قرار است این موسیقی پخش شود Children seem to enjoy the party. ﻗﺮار اﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺑﭽﻪ ﻫﺎ در ﻣﻬﻤﺎﻧﯽ ﺧﻮش ﺑﮕﺬرد The children seem to be enjoining the party. به بچه ها در مهمانی خوش میگذرد The children seem to have enjoyed the party. به بچه ها خوش گذشته در مهمانی It is easy to me to learn English. ﺑﻪ اﻋﺘﻘﺎد ﻣﻦ ﯾﺎد ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ اﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽ آﺳﺎن اﺳﺖ It is easy for me to learn English. ﺑﺮاي ﻣﻦ راﺣﺖ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ اﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽ ﯾﺎد ﺑﮕﯿﺮم It is kind to me to give some money. It is kind for me to give some money.

ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ اﯾﻦ ﮐﻪ ﭼﻪ ﺻﻔﺘﯽ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﮐﻨﯿﺪ ﺗﻔﺎوت ﻣﻌﻨﺎﯾﯽ اﯾﺠﺎد ﻣﯽﺷﻮد. ﺣﺎل اﯾﻦ ﺟﻤﻼت را ﺑﻪ اﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ:

ﺑﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺳﺮﮔﺮﻣﯽ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻮﺳﯿﻘﯽ اﺟﺮا ﮐﻨﯿﺪ

ﺑﺮاي ﺷﻤﺎ ﺳﺮﮔﺮﻣﯽ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻮﺳﯿﻘﯽ اﺟﺮا ﮐﻨﯿﺪ

ﺗﻤﺮﯾﻦ: ﺑﺮاي ﻧﺸﺎن دادن ﻓﺎﻋﻞ، ﻣﻔﻌﻮل، اﻋﺘﻘﺎد از for, of, to اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﮐﻨﯿﺪ. ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﺎي ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ:

  • Foolish

  • Generous
  • Alarming

 ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﻧﮑﺮدن ﺑﺮاي اﻣﺘﺤﺎن ﮐﺎر ﺑﺴﯿﺎر اﺣﻤﻘﺎﻧﻪ اي ﺑﻮد از ﺳﻮي ﺷﻤﺎ

 ﭘﺮﺳﯿﺪن ﭼﻨﯿﻦ ﺳﻮاﻟﯽ از ﺳﻮي ﻋﻠﯽ ﮐﺎر ﺑﺴﯿﺎر ﻋﺎﻗﻼﻧﻪ اي ﺑﻮد.

 ﺑﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺑﯿﺮون رﻓﺘﻦ ﻋﻠﯽ از ﮐﻼس ﮐﺎر ﺑﯽ ادﺑﺎﻧﻪ اي ﺑﻮد.

 ﺑﻪ اﻋﺘﻘﺎد ﻣﻌﻠﻢ آداﻣﺲ ﺟﻮﯾﺪن در ﮐﻼس ﮐﺎر ﺑﯽ ادﺑﺎﻧﻪ اي اﺳﺖ.

 اﯾﻨﮑﻪ ﺑﭽﻪ ﻫﺮ ﭼﯿﺰ ﺑﺨﻮاﻫﺪ ﺑﻪ او ﺑﺪﻫﻨﺪ ﮐﺎر ﺑﺴﯿﺎر اﺷﺘﺒﺎﻫﯽ اﺳﺖ.

 اﯾﻨﮑﻪ از او ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻒ ﺷﺪ در ﮐﻼس ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺧﺠﺎﻟﺖ وي ﺷﺪ.

ﻧﮑﺘﻪ: ﺻﻔﺎﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ing ﻣﯿﮕﯿﺮﻧﺪ ﺑﺎ of ﮐﻨﻨﺪه ي ﮐﺎر ﻣﯿﺸﻮﻧﺪ و ﺑﺎ to ﮐﺎر ﺳﺮﺷﺎن ﻣﯽ آﯾﺪ.

 ﺑﺴﯿﺎر ﻧﺎراﺣﺖ ﮐﻨﻨﺪه ﺑﻮد ﮐﻪ ﻋﻠﯽ در ﺗﻤﺎم اﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎت اﻓﺘﺎد.

 ﺑﺮاي ﻣﻦ ﺧﯿﻠﯽ ﻋﺼﺒﺎﻧﯽ ﮐﻨﻨﺪه ﺑﻮد ﮐﻪ دﯾﺪم ﺑﭽﻪ ام اﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺶ را اﻓﺘﺎده اﺳﺖ.

 ﺑﺴﯿﺎر ﻋﺼﺒﺎﻧﯽ ﮐﻨﻨﺪه ﺑﻮد ﺑﺮاي ﻋﻠﯽ ﮐﻪ اﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺶ را اﻓﺘﺎده اﺳﺖ.

 ﺑﻪ اﻋﺘﻘﺎد ﭘﺪرم اﯾﻦ ﮐﻪ ﺗﻮي ﮐﻼس ﮐﻼﻫﺖ را ﺑﺬاري ﺑﯽ ادﺑﺎﻧﻪ اﺳﺖ.

ﺑﺮاي ﻧﻘﺶ اﺳﻤﯽ(فاعل و مفعول):

 ﻣﯿﺨﻮام اﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽ ﺑﺨﻮﻧﻢ.

 دوﺳﺖ دارم ﺗﻠﻮﯾﺰﯾﻮن ﺑﺒﯿﻨﻢ

 اﯾﺴﺘﺎدم ﻋﻠﯽ رو ﺑﺒﯿﻨﻢ.

 ﺗﻼش ﮐﺮدم ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﯽ زﻧﮓ ﺑﺰﻧﻢ.

ﻧﮑﺘﻪ: در اﯾﻨﺠﺎ ﻫﻢ ﻣﯿﺘﻮان از gerund اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﮐﺮد و ﻫﻢ از infinitive . اﻣﺎ ﺗﻔﺎوﺗﻬﺎﯾﯽ ﺑﯿﻦ اﯾﻦ دو phrase وﺟﻮد دارد ﮐﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺗﻮﺿﯿﺢ دادن gerund ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ آﻣﺪ. در اﯾﻨﺠﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ 3 ﺗﻔﺎوت ﻣﻬﻢ آﻧﻬﺎ را ﺑﯿﺎن ﻣﯿﮑﻨﯿﻢ:

Gerund هم زمانی (simultaneity) را نشان میدهد. اما infinitive توالی (sequence) را. مثال:

  • I enjoy watching TV.
  • I seceded to see Ali.

Gerund اﻃﻼﻋﺎت ﻋﺎم ﻣﯿﺪﻫﺪ. اﻣﺎ infinitive اﻃﻼﻋﺎت ﺧﺎص ﻣﯿﺪﻫﺪ:

I like watching TV. کلا از دیدن فیلم لذت میبرم.

I like to watch TV. الان از دیدن فیلم لذت میبرم.

Gerund ﻗﻄﻌﯽ اﺳﺖ. ﭼﻮن از ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﻣﯿﮕﻮﯾﺪ و ﻋﻤﻞ ﺻﻮرت ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ اﺳﺖ.اﻣﺎ infinitive ﻧﯿﺘﯽ را ﺑﯿﺎن ﻣﯿﮑﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ در آﯾﻨﺪه ﻗﺼﺪ اﻧﺠﺎﻣﺶ را دارد.

He admitted killing Mr. X. اﯾﻦ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ(past) اﺳﺖ و ﻋﻤﻠﯽ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺻﻮرﺗﺖ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ اﺳﺖ.

I come here to see Ali. اﯾﻦ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻧﯿﺘﯽ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ در future ﻗﺼﺪ اﻧﺠﺎﻣﺶ را دارد:

ﺗﻤﺮﯾﻦ: ﺑﻪ اﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﮐﻨﯿﺪ:

 ﻧﺘﻮاﻧﺴﺖ ﭘﻮل ﺑﺮاي ﺧﺮﯾﺪ ﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﻓﺮاﻫﻢ ﮐﻨﺪ.

 ﻧﺘﻮاﻧﺴﺖ ﺳﻮال ﻣﻌﻠﻢ را ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دﻫﺪ.

 ﺗﻮاﻧﺴﺖ ﺳﻮال ﻣﻌﻠﻢ را ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دﻫﺪ.

 اﻣﯿﺪوارم ﺑﺘﻮﻧﻢ ﮐﻤﮑﺘﺎن ﮐﻨﻢ.

 اﻣﯿﺪوارم ﺑﺘﻮاﻧﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻮاﻻﺗﺘﺎن ﭘﺎﺳﺦ دﻫﻢ.

 دارﻧﺪ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ رﯾﺰي ﻣﯿﮑﻨﻨﺪ ﺳﺎل آﯾﻨﺪه ازدواج ﮐﻨﻨﺪ.

 دارﻧﺪ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ رﯾﺰي ﻣﯿﮑﻨﻨﺪ ﺳﺎل آﯾﻨﺪه ﺗﺪرﯾﺲ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ.

 دارﻧﺪ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ رﯾﺰي ﻣﯿﮑﻨﻨﺪ ﺑﺮوﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻔﺮ در ﺗﺎﺑﺴﺘﺎن.

Infinitive ﻫﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ از اﺳﻢ و ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺿﻤﯿﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮان ﺻﻔﺖ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﯽﺷﻮﻧﺪ.

A book to study
نقش وصفی

از ﺑﯿﻦ 12 ﻗﯿﺪ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ infinitive ﻫﺎ :

Adverb of Purpose (most important)

Ali called me to ask about the exam.

در اﻧﮕﻠﯿﺴﯽ وﻗﺘﯽ ﻣﯿﺨﻮاﻫﯿﺪ ﻧﯿﺖ را ﻧﺸﺎن ﺑﺪﻫﯿﺪ ﺣﺘﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﯾﺪ از ﻗﯿﺪ phrase infinitive اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﮐﻨﯿﺪ.

In order to: is formal written.

to order In ﻫﯿﭻ ﺗﻔﺎوت ﻣﻌﻨﺎﯾﯽ ﺑﺎ to ﻧﺪارد. ﻓﻘﻂ ﺷﮑﻞ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﺎري اﺳﺖ. اﯾﻦ ﻋﺒﺎرت ﭼﻮن ﺑﺎ inﺷﺮوع ﻣﯿﺸﻮد ﺑﻪ ﻟﺤﺎظ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎري preposition اﺳﺖ. اﻣﺎ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ان را در phrase infinitive ﺑﺮرﺳﯽ ﻣﯿﮑﻨﻨﺪ.

ﻧﮑﺘﻪ: ﻣﻬﻢ ﺗﺮﯾﻦ ﻧﻘﺶ infinitive در ﻧﻘﺶ ﻗﯿﺪي ﻫﻤﯿﻦ ﻗﯿﺪ ﻧﯿﺖ «purpose» اﺳﺖ

Gerund Phrases

What roles: nominal (subject/ object)

Toرا ﺣﺬف ﮐﺮده ﺑﻪ اوﻟﯿﻦ ﮐﻠﻤﻪ ﺣﺮف(ing)
را اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻣﯿﮑﻨﯿﻢ

The Actives of them
• can have object
• can have agent: (‘s, possessive adjective, by phrase, of phrase)
• The …. of phrase
The passives of them
• Cannot have object
• Can have agent
All of them

• Can become negative
• Can have adjective
• Can have adverb unless adverb of manner. It changes to adjective and come before gerund phrase.

• Prepositional Phrases
• Adjective Phrases

• To wait seemed foolish when decisive action was required. (subject)
• Everyone wanted to go. (direct object).
• His ambition is to fly. (subject complement)
• He lacked the strength to resist. (adjective)
• I need a helper to assist me with house chores. (adjective, describes the helper)
• I wish I had a lover to keep me company. (adjective, describes the lover)
• We must study to learn. (adverb)\

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